This doctoral thesis addresses the transition phase of public bus transport systems by exploring electrification as a vector for decarbonisation. The C40-city of Curitiba in Southern Brazil is used as a case study. The research is of explorative and empirical nature. Quantitative research methods are applied to compare bus technologies as well as new optimisation models and planning tools are developed to support data analytics and research in the areas of simulation, optimisation and (long-term) planning of energy and transport systems at different levels of consideration.
The results from the comparison of different buses show large potentials to save energy and reduce emissions during the operation phase, for example, when using hybrid-electric or plug-in hybrid- electric buses instead of conventional buses. Moreover, energy savings in the operation phase also imply avoidance of fuel production and supply. Additionally, electrified buses can also reduce operational uncertainty caused by varying driving cycles and fluctuating fuel prices concerning an absolute variation of both energy use and fuel cost in the operation phase.